Science Express

  • Atmospheric blocking as a traffic jam in the jet stream June 21, 2018
    Atmospheric blocking due to anomalous, persistent meandering of the jet stream often causes weather extremes in the midlatitudes. Despite its ubiquity, the onset mechanism of blocking is not well understood. Here we demonstrate with meteorological data that there exists a close analogy between blocking and traffic congestion on a highway, and that they can b […]
    Nakamura, N., Huang, C. S. Y.
  • Mediator and RNA polymerase II clusters associate in transcription-dependent condensates June 21, 2018
    Models of gene control have emerged from genetic and biochemical studies, with limited consideration of the spatial organization and dynamics of key components in living cells. Here we used live cell super-resolution and light sheet imaging to study the organization and dynamics of the Mediator coactivator and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) directly. Mediator an […]
    Cho, W.-K., Spille, J.-H., Hecht, M., Lee, C., Li, C., Grube, V., Cisse, I. I.
  • Seeded growth of single-crystal two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks June 21, 2018
    Polymerizing monomers into periodic two-dimensional (2D) networks provides structurally precise, layered macromolecular sheets that exhibit desirable mechanical, optoelectrotronic, and molecular transport properties. 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) offer broad monomer scope but are generally isolated as powders comprised of aggregated nanometer-scale c […]
    Evans, A. M., Parent, L. R., Flanders, N. C., Bisbey, R. P., Vitaku, E., Kirschner, M. S., Schaller, R. D., Chen, L. X., Gianneschi, N. C., Dichtel, W. R.
  • Assessment of methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas supply chain June 21, 2018
    Methane emissions from the U.S. oil and natural gas supply chain were estimated using ground-based, facility-scale measurements and validated with aircraft observations in areas accounting for ~30% of U.S. gas production. When scaled up nationally, our facility-based estimate of 2015 supply chain emissions is 13 ± 2 Tg/y, equivalent to 2.3% of gross U.S. gas […]
    Alvarez, R. A., Zavala-Araiza, D., Lyon, D. R., Allen, D. T., Barkley, Z. R., Brandt, A. R., Davis, K. J., Herndon, S. C., Jacob, D. J., Karion, A., Kort, E. A., Lamb, B. K., Lauvaux, T., Maasakkers, J. D., Marchese, A. J., Omara, M., Pacala, S. W., Peischl, J., Robinson, A. L., Shepson, P. B., Sweeney, C., Townsend-Small, A., Wofsy, S. C., Hamburg, S. P.
  • Coactivator condensation at super-enhancers links phase separation and gene control June 21, 2018
    Super-enhancers (SEs) are clusters of enhancers that cooperatively assemble a high density of transcriptional apparatus to drive robust expression of genes with prominent roles in cell identity. Here, we demonstrate that the SE-enriched transcriptional coactivators BRD4 and MED1 form nuclear puncta at SEs that exhibit properties of liquid-like condensates an […]
    Sabari, B. R., Dall'Agnese, A., Boija, A., Klein, I. A., Coffey, E. L., Shrinivas, K., Abraham, B. J., Hannett, N. M., Zamudio, A. V., Manteiga, J. C., Li, C. H., Guo, Y. E., Day, D. S., Schuijers, J., Vasile, E., Malik, S., Hnisz, D., Lee, T. I., Cisse, I. I., Roeder, R. G., Sharp, P. A., Chakraborty, A. K., Young, R. A.
  • Imaging dynamic and selective low-complexity domain interactions that control gene transcription June 21, 2018
    Many eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) contain intrinsically disordered low-complexity domains (LCDs), but how they drive transactivation remains unclear. Here, live-cell single-molecule imaging reveals that TF-LCDs form local high-concentration interaction hubs at synthetic and endogenous genomic loci. TF-LCD hubs stabilize DNA binding, recruit RNA pol […]
    Chong, S., Dugast-Darzacq, C., Liu, Z., Dong, P., Dailey, G. M., Cattoglio, C., Heckert, A., Banala, S., Lavis, L., Darzacq, X., Tjian, R.
  • Three-dimensional intact-tissue sequencing of single-cell transcriptional states June 21, 2018
    Retrieving high-content gene-expression information while retaining 3D positional anatomy at cellular resolution has been difficult, limiting integrative understanding of structure and function in complex biological tissues. Here we develop and apply a technology for 3D intact-tissue RNA sequencing, termed STARmap (Spatially-resolved Transcript Amplicon Read […]
    Wang, X., Allen, W. E., Wright, M. A., Sylwestrak, E. L., Samusik, N., Vesuna, S., Evans, K., Liu, C., Ramakrishnan, C., Liu, J., Nolan, G. P., Bava, F.-A., Deisseroth, K.
  • A dust-enshrouded tidal disruption event with a resolved radio jet in a galaxy merger June 14, 2018
    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) are transient flares produced when a star is ripped apart by the gravitational field of a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We have observed a transient source in the western nucleus of the merging galaxy pair Arp 299 that radiated >1.5 x 1052 erg in the infrared and radio but was not luminous at optical or x-ray wavelengths. […]
    Mattila, S., Perez-Torres, M., Efstathiou, A., Mimica, P., Fraser, M., Kankare, E., Alberdi, A., Aloy, M. A., Heikkilä, T., Jonker, P. G., Lundqvist, P., Marti-Vidal, I., Meikle, W. P. S., Romero-Canizales, C., Smartt, S. J., Tsygankov, S., Varenius, E., Alonso-Herrero, A., Bondi, M., Fransson, C., Herrero-Illana, R., Kangas, T., Kotak, R., Ramirez-Olivencia, N., Väisänen, P., Beswick, R. J., Clements, D. L., Greimel, R., Harmanen, J., Kotilainen, J., Nandra, K., Reynolds, T., Ryder, S., Walton, N. A., Wiik, K., Östlin, G.
  • Dirac-source field-effect transistors as energy-efficient, high-performance electronic switches June 14, 2018
    An efficient way to reduce the power is to lower the supply voltage VDD, but this voltage is restricted by the 60 millivolts per decade thermionic limit of subthreshold swing (SS) in field-effect transistors (FETs). We show that a graphene Dirac source (DS) with a much narrower electron density distribution around the Fermi level than that of conventional FE […]
    Qiu, C., Liu, F., Xu, L., Deng, B., Xiao, M., Si, J., Lin, L., Zhang, Z., Wang, J., Guo, H., Peng, H., Peng, L.-M.
  • Sex reversal following deletion of a single distal enhancer of Sox9 June 14, 2018
    Cell fate decisions require appropriate regulation of key genes. Sox9, a direct target of SRY, is pivotal in mammalian sex determination. In vivo high-throughput chromatin accessibility techniques, transgenic assays, and genome editing revealed several novel gonadal regulatory elements in the 2-megabase gene desert upstream of Sox9. Although others are redun […]
    Gonen, N., Futtner, C. R., Wood, S., Garcia-Moreno, S. A., Salamone, I. M., Samson, S. C., Sekido, R., Poulat, F., Maatouk, D. M., Lovell-Badge, R.
  • Retinal isomerization in bacteriorhodopsin captured by a femtosecond x-ray laser June 14, 2018
    Ultrafast isomerization of retinal is the primary step in photoresponsive biological functions including vision in humans and ion-transport across bacterial membranes. We studied the sub-picosecond structural dynamics of retinal isomerization in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin using an x-ray laser. A series of structural snapshots with near-at […]
    Nogly, P., Weinert, T., James, D., Carbajo, S., Ozerov, D., Furrer, A., Gashi, D., Borin, V., Skopintsev, P., Jaeger, K., Nass, K., Bath, P., Bosman, R., Koglin, J., Seaberg, M., Lane, T., Kekilli, D., Brünle, S., Tanaka, T., Wu, W., Milne, C., White, T., Barty, A., Weierstall, U., Panneels, V., Nango, E., Iwata, S., Hunter, M., Schapiro, I., Schertler, G., Neutze, R., Standfuss, J.
  • The South Asian monsoon--Pollution pump and purifier June 14, 2018
    Air pollution is growing fastest in monsoon-impacted South Asia. During the dry, winter monsoon the fumes disperse toward the Indian Ocean, creating a vast pollution haze, but their fate during the wet, summer monsoon has been unclear. We performed atmospheric chemistry measurements by aircraft in the "Oxidation Mechanism Observations" campaign, sa […]
    Lelieveld, J., Bourtsoukidis, E., Brühl, C., Fischer, H., Fuchs, H., Harder, H., Hofzumahaus, A., Holland, F., Marno, D., Neumaier, M., Pozzer, A., Schlager, H., Williams, J., Zahn, A., Ziereis, H.
  • Ultrastable laser interferometry for earthquake detection with terrestrial and submarine cables June 14, 2018
    Detecting ocean-floor seismic activity is crucial for our understanding of the interior structure and dynamic behavior of the Earth. However, 70% of the planet’s surface is covered by water and seismometers coverage is limited to a handful of permanent ocean bottom stations. We show that existing telecommunication optical fiber cables can detect seismic even […]
    Marra, G., Clivati, C., Luckett, R., Tampellini, A., Kronjäger, J., Wright, L., Mura, A., Levi, F., Robinson, S., Xuereb, A., Baptie, B., Calonico, D.
  • Structure basis for RNA-guided DNA degradation by Cascade and Cas3 June 7, 2018
    Type I CRISPR-Cas system features a sequential target-searching and degradation process on double-stranded DNA, by the RNA-guided Cascade complex and the nuclease-helicase fusion enzyme Cas3, respectively. Here we present a 3.7 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of the Type I-E Cascade/R-loop/Cas3 complex, poised to initiate DNA degradation. Cas3 distinguishes C […]
    Xiao, Y., Luo, M., Dolan, A. E., Liao, M., Ke, A.
  • Friction at the bed does not control fast glacier flow June 7, 2018
    The largest uncertainty in ice sheet models used to predict future sea-level rise originates from our limited understanding of processes at the ice-bed interface. Near glacier termini, where basal sliding controls ice flow, most predictive ice sheet models use a parameterization of sliding that has been theoretically derived for glacier flow over a hard bed. […]
    Stearns, L. A., van der Veen, C. J.
  • Ultrafast neuronal imaging of dopamine dynamics with designed genetically encoded sensors May 31, 2018
    Neuromodulatory systems exert profound influences on brain function. Understanding how these systems modify the operating mode of target circuits requires measuring spatiotemporally precise neuromodulator release. We developed dLight1, an intensity-based genetically encoded dopamine indicator, to enable optical recording of dopamine dynamics with high spatio […]
    Patriarchi, T., Cho, J. R., Merten, K., Howe, M. W., Marley, A., Xiong, W.-H., Folk, R. W., Broussard, G. J., Liang, R., Jang, M. J., Zhong, H., Dombeck, D., von Zastrow, M., Nimmerjahn, A., Gradinaru, V., Williams, J. T., Tian, L.
  • Programming self-organizing multicellular structures with synthetic cell-cell signaling May 31, 2018
    A common theme in the self-organization of multicellular tissues is the use of cell-cell signaling networks to induce morphological changes. We used the modular synNotch juxtacrine signaling platform to engineer artificial genetic programs in which specific cell-cell contacts induced changes in cadherin cell adhesion. Despite their simplicity, these minimal […]
    Toda, S., Blauch, L. R., Tang, S. K. Y., Morsut, L., Lim, W. A.
  • Late inception of a resiliently oxygenated upper ocean May 31, 2018
    Rising oceanic and atmospheric oxygen levels through time have been crucial to enhanced habitability of surface Earth environments. Few redox proxies can track secular variations in dissolved oxygen concentrations ([O2]) around threshold levels for metazoan survival in the upper ocean. We present an extensive compilation of iodine to calcium ratios (I/Ca) in […]
    Lu, W., Ridgwell, A., Thomas, E., Hardisty, D. S., Luo, G., Algeo, T. J., Saltzman, M. R., Gill, B. C., Shen, Y., Ling, H.-F., Edwards, C. T., Whalen, M. T., Zhou, X., Gutchess, K. M., Jin, L., Rickaby, R. E. M., Jenkyns, H. C., Lyons, T. W., Lenton, T. M., Kump, L. R., Lu, Z.
  • Postimpact earliest Paleogene warming shown by fish debris oxygen isotopes (El Kef, Tunisia) May 24, 2018
    Greenhouse warming is a predicted consequence of the Chicxulub impact, but supporting data are sparse. This shortcoming compromises understanding of the impact’s effects, and it has persisted due to an absence of sections that both contain suitable material for traditional carbonate-based or organic-based paleothermometry and are complete and expanded enough […]
    MacLeod, K. G., Quinton, P. C., Sepulveda, J., Negra, M. H.
  • Phylogenomics reveals multiple losses of nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis May 24, 2018
    The root nodule symbiosis of plants with nitrogen-fixing bacteria impacts global nitrogen cycles and food production but is restricted to a subset of genera within a single clade of flowering plants. To explore the genetic basis for this scattered occurrence, we sequenced the genomes of ten plant species covering the diversity of nodule morphotypes, bacteria […]
    Griesmann, M., Chang, Y., Liu, X., Song, Y., Haberer, G., Crook, M. B., Billault-Penneteau, B., Lauressergues, D., Keller, J., Imanishi, L., Roswanjaya, Y. P., Kohlen, W., Pujic, P., Battenberg, K., Alloisio, N., Liang, Y., Hilhorst, H., Salgado, M. G., Hocher, V., Gherbi, H., Svistoonoff, S., Doyle, J. J., He, S., Xu, Y., Xu, S., Qu, J., Gao, Q., Fang, X., Fu, Y., Normand, P., Berry, A. M., Wall, L. G., Ane, J.-M., Pawlowski, K., Xu, X., Yang, H., Spannagl, M., Mayer, K. F. X., Wong, G. K.-S., Parniske, M., Delaux, P.-M., Cheng, S.
  • Structures of the fully assembled Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosome before activation May 24, 2018
    The pre-catalytic spliceosome (B complex) is preceded by the pre-B complex. Here we report the cryo-EM structures of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pre-B and B complexes at average resolutions of 3.3-4.6 and 3.9 Å, respectively. In the pre-B complex, the duplex between the 5'-splice site (5'SS) and U1 snRNA is recognized by Yhc1, Luc7, and the Sm rin […]
    Bai, R., Wan, R., Yan, C., Lei, J., Shi, Y.
  • Mapping the dark space of chemical reactions with extended nanomole synthesis and MALDI-TOF MS May 24, 2018
    Understanding the practical limitations of chemical reactions is critically important for efficiently planning the synthesis of compounds in pharmaceutical, agrochemical and specialty chemical research and development. However, literature reports of the scope of new reactions are often cursory and biased toward successful results, severely limiting the abili […]
    Lin, S., Dikler, S., Blincoe, W. D., Ferguson, R. D., Sheridan, R. P., Peng, Z., Conway, D. V., Zawatzky, K., Wang, H., Cernak, T., Davies, I. W., DiRocco, D. A., Sheng, H., Welch, C. J., Dreher, S. D.
  • The rise, collapse, and compaction of Mt. Mantap from the 3 September 2017 North Korean nuclear test May 21, 2018
    Surveillance of clandestine nuclear tests relies on a global seismic network, but the potential of spaceborne monitoring has been underexploited. Here, we determined the complete surface displacement field of up to 3.5 m of divergent horizontal motion with 0.5 m of subsidence associated with North Korea’s largest underground nuclear test using satellite rada […]
    Wang, T., Shi, Q., Nikkhoo, M., Wei, S., Barbot, S., Dreger, D., Bürgmann, R., Motagh, M., Chen, Q.-F.
  • Notch ligand Dll1 mediates cross-talk between mammary stem cells and the macrophageal niche May 17, 2018
    The stem cell niche is a specialized environment that dictates stem cell function during development and homeostasis. Here, we show that Dll1, a Notch pathway ligand, is enriched in mammary gland stem cells (MaSCs) and mediates critical interactions with stromal macrophages in the surrounding niche. Conditional deletion of Dll1 reduced the number of MaSCs an […]
    Chakrabarti, R., Celia-Terrassa, T., Kumar, S., Hang, X., Wei, Y., Choudhury, A., Hwang, J., Peng, J., Nixon, B., Grady, J. J., DeCoste, C., Gao, J., van Es, J. H., Li, M. O., Aifantis, I., Clevers, H., Kang, Y.
  • Ancient genomes document multiple waves of migration in Southeast Asian prehistory May 17, 2018
    Southeast Asia is home to rich human genetic and linguistic diversity, but the details of past population movements in the region are not well known. Here, we report genome-wide ancient DNA data from eighteen Southeast Asian individuals spanning from the Neolithic period through the Iron Age (4100–1700 years ago). Early farmers from Man Bac in Vietnam exhibi […]
    Lipson, M., Cheronet, O., Mallick, S., Rohland, N., Oxenham, M., Pietrusewsky, M., Pryce, T. O., Willis, A., Matsumura, H., Buckley, H., Domett, K., Hai, N. G., Hiep, T. H., Kyaw, A. A., Win, T. T., Pradier, B., Broomandkhoshbacht, N., Candilio, F., Changmai, P., Fernandes, D., Ferry, M., Gamarra, B., Harney, E., Kampuansai, J., Kutanan, W., Michel, M., Novak, M., Oppenheimer, J., Sirak, K., Stewardson, K., Zhang, Z., Flegontov, P., Pinhasi, R., Reich, D.
  • The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia May 9, 2018
    The Yamnaya expansions from the western steppe into Europe and Asia during the Early Bronze Age (~3000 BCE) are believed to have brought with them Indo-European languages and possibly horse husbandry. We analyze 74 ancient whole-genome sequences from across Inner Asia and Anatolia and show that the Botai people associated with the earliest horse husbandry de […]
    de Barros Damgaard, P., Martiniano, R., Kamm, J., Moreno-Mayar, J. V., Kroonen, G., Peyrot, M., Barjamovic, G., Rasmussen, S., Zacho, C., Baimukhanov, N., Zaibert, V., Merz, V., Biddanda, A., Merz, I., Loman, V., Evdokimov, V., Usmanova, E., Hemphill, B., Seguin-Orlando, A., Yediay, F. E., Ullah, I., Sjögren, K.-G., Iversen, K. H., Choin, J., de la Fuente, C., Ilardo, M., Schroeder, H., Moiseyev, V., Gromov, A., Polyakov, A., Omura, S., Senyurt, S. Y., Ahmad, H., McKenzie, C., Margaryan, A., Hameed, A., Samad, A., Gul, N., Khokhar, M. H., Goriunova, O. I., Bazaliiskii, V. I., Novembre, J., Weber, A. W., Orlando, L., Allentoft, M. E., Nielsen, R., Kristiansen, K., Sikora, M., Outram, A. K., Durbin, R., Willerslev, E.
  • Single-proton spin detection by diamond magnetometry January 8, 2015
    Extending magnetic resonance imaging to the atomic scale has been a long-standing aspiration, driven by the prospect of directly mapping atomic positions in molecules with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We report detection of individual, isolated proton spins by a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in a diamond chip covered by an inorganic salt. The single- […]
    Loretz, M., Rosskopf, T., Boss, J. M., Pezzagna, S., Meijer, J., Degen, C. L.
  • Critics Skeptical as Flu Scientists Argue for Controversial H7N9 Studies August 7, 2013
    Malakoff, D.
  • Genetic Signatures of Exceptional Longevity in Humans July 21, 2011
    Healthy aging is thought to reflect the combined influence of environmental factors (lifestyle choices) and genetic factors. To explore the genetic contribution, we undertook a genome-wide association study of exceptional longevity (EL) in 1055 centenarians and 1267 controls. Using these data, we built a genetic model that includes 150 single-nucleotide poly […]
    Sebastiani, P., Solovieff, N., Puca, A., Hartley, S. W., Melista, E., Andersen, S., Dworkis, D. A., Wilk, J. B., Myers, R. H., Steinberg, M. H., Montano, M., Baldwin, C. T., Perls, T. T.
  • A Single Molecular Spin Valve April 18, 2002
    The charge transport through a single benzene-1,4-dithiolate molecule embedded in an inert matrix of insulating alkanethiol molecules and sandwiched between ferromagnetic electrodes is studied as a function of magnetic field. Electronic transport through the device structure shows a pronounced spin valve behavior and a giant magnetoresistive effect exceeding […]
    Schon, Emberly, Kirczenow


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